The American Sociological Association Style Guide is intended for authors who are preparing manuscripts for publication in ASA journals. This handout is intended for students who are instructed by their professors to use "ASA style" when writing research papers. Consult the Style Guide for answers to questions not covered here. As with any writing assignment, students should pay careful attention to grammar, spelling, punctuation, capitalization, usage, and accuracy. Hanging indentation should be used for all references. Some web browsers will display references in block format.
American Sociological Association. 1997. American Sociological Association Style Guide. 2nd ed. Washington, DC: American Sociological Association.
Butler Library Call Number: Ref HM 73 .A54 1997
The Librarian can point out the location of
the Style Guide in the Reference Room.
THIS IS A FIRST LEVEL HEADING (all caps, centered or left justified)
The beginning of the paper should not have a heading, i.e. do not use INTRODUCTION
This Is a Second Level Heading (italics, centered or left justified)
CITATIONS IN TEXT
Quotations in text must begin and end with quotation marks; the citation follows the end quote mark and precedes the period.
"In 1998, however, the data were reported by more specific job type3/4 which showed that technologically oriented jobs paid better" (Hildenbrand 1999:47).
Use p. (lowercase p) for the page number when the author and year do not accompany it.
Hildenbrand (1999) stated that "in 1998, however, the data were reported by more specific job type3/4 which showed that technologically oriented jobs paid better" (p. 47).
Set longer quotations off in a separate paragraph that is indented from the text, single space, and use a smaller type size. Do not use quotation marks.
If necessity is the mother of Invention, then perhaps desperation might be Inspiration's father. How many useful innovations that seem to others like bright and shiny new ideas are created as the result of a last-ditch attempt to fix a part of the world that had just been noticed to be "out of order?" Perhaps that is not a very romantic view of change, but it often fits experience. And if a new idea works, by bringing about needed improvements, it looks better and better (Besemer et al. 1993:69).
If the author's name is in the text followed by the year in parentheses, put the page reference, preceded by P. (upper case P), in parentheses following the end period of the quote.
According to Besemer et al. (1993):
If necessity is the mother of Invention, then perhaps desperation might be Inspiration's father. How many useful innovations that seem to others like bright and shiny new ideas are created as the result of a last-ditch attempt to fix a part of the world that had just been noticed to be "out of order?" Perhaps that is not a very romantic view of change, but it often fits experience. And if a new idea works, by bringing about needed improvements, it looks better and better (P. 69).
PARAPHRASES - When using an author's ideas or re-phrasing his words3/4 even though you do not quote the words directly3/4 you must document the source. Use the same format as shown above for the citations in text, but omit the page number.
<paraphrase> in another study by Davidoff (1989).
<paraphrase> whenever it occurred (Riess 1991).
Additional Examples of Citations in Text
(Sternberg et al. 1999)
(U. S. Bureau of the Census 1998:482)
(Posner 1987; Munn 1990; Vaughan and Hsu 1993)
(Munn 1990; Posner 1987; Vaughan and Hsu 1993)
Books - One Author
Prus, Robert C. 1996. Symbolic Interaction and Ethnographic Research: Intersubjectivity and the Study of Human Lived Experience. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Books - Two Authors
Renzetti, Claire M. and Daniel J. Curran. 1998. Living Sociology. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Books - Edited
Turner, Stephen P., ed. 1996. Social Theory and Sociology: The Classics and Beyond. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.
Books - No Author
Manual of Style.
1993. 14th ed. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Chapters from Books
Berk, Richard. 1972. "The Controversy Surrounding Analysis of Collective Violence: Some Methodological Notes." Pp. 112-118 in Collective Violence, edited by James F. Short and Marvin E. Wolfgang. Chicago, IL: Aldine.
Articles from Journals - One Author
Crawford, Walt. 1999. "Bits Is Bits: Pitfalls in Digital Reformatting." American Libraries 30 (5): 47-49.
Hildenbrand, Suzanne. 1999. "The Information Age vs. Gender Equity." Library Journal, April 15, 124:44-47.
Use the issue number or exact date for journals that do not number pages consecutively within a volume.
Articles from Journals - Multiple Authors
Besemer, Susan P., Sarah B. Dorsey, Barbara L. Kittle and Carrie M. Niles. 1993. "Managing the Academic Library through Teamwork: A Case Study." Journal of Library Administration 18:69-89.
Issue number and/or exact date unnecessary if pages are numbered consecutively within a volume.
Articles from Magazines and Newspapers
Gibbs, Nancy. 1999. "Noon in the Garden of Good and Evil: The Tragedy at Columbine Began as a Crime Story But Is Becoming a Parable." Time, May 17, 153:54.
Snyder, Donna. 1999. "Judge Orders Teen's Hearing in Murder Case to Be Closed." The Buffalo News, May 18, 1B.
Articles from Commercial Electronic Periodical Databases
Graham, Lorie M. 1998. "The Past Never Vanishes: A Contextual Critique of the Existing Indian Family Doctrine" American Indian Law Review, 23:1 (32854 words). Retrieved May 25, 1999 Available: LEXIS-NEXIS Academic Universe, Law Reviews.
Whipple, Ellen E. 1999. "Reaching Families with Preschoolers at Risk of Physical Child Abuse: What Works?" Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Human Services. 80:148 (1 page). Retrieved June 23, 1999 Available: SearchBank Expanded Academic ASAP.
Articles from Electronic Journals
Chuang, Chien-Pen, Xing Lan and Joseph C. Chen. 1999. "A Systematic Procedure for Designing State Combination Circuits in PLCs" Journal of Industrial Technology, 15 (3 pages). Retrieved May 25, 1999 (http://www.nait.org/)
Rehfeld, Jens F. 1998. "The New Biology of Gastrointestinal Hormones." Physiological Reviews, 78:1087-1108. Retrieved May 25, 1999 (http://physrev.physiology.org/search.shtml)
Information Posted on Web Pages, etc.
American Sociological Association. 1999. "Meeting Schedule." Washington, DC: American Sociological Association. Retrieved April 22, 1999 (http://www.asanet.org/Meetings/99AM/PrelimProg/genschedule.htm)
Chubu Institute of Advanced Studies. "Comparative Rural Sociology in Asia." PROJECT (3). Japan. Retrieved April 1, 1999 (http://www.chubu.ac.jp/inst/projects/comparative-index-.html)
Pomeroy, Steve and Michel Frojmovic. 1995. "Inventory of Responses Addressing Homelessness." Submitted to Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation. Retrieved March 2, 1999 gopher://csf.colorado.edu:70/00/psn/homeless/Inventory-of-resources)
For additional information on citing
electronic resources consult: